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548 14 VIRGINIA LAW REGISTER. [Nov., 

dence of selling by retail without a license, and Act March. 15, 1906 
(Acts 1906, p. 411, c. 230), providing that the possession of the 
United States internal revenue tax receipt for the sale of liquors 
shall be prima facie evidence of the sale of liquor, etc., a disputable 
presumption of guilt of accused is shown on proof that he held a 
United States license as a retail liquor dealer, and in the absence 
of exculpatory evidence a conviction is proper. 

[Ed. Note. — For cases in point, see Cent. Dig. vol. 29, Intoxi- 
cating Liquors, §§ 278, 321.] 

4. Criminal Law — Trial — Right to Confront Witnesses — Constitu- 
tional Law. — Bill of Rights, Const, art. 1, § 8 (Code 1904, p. ccix), 
guaranteeing the right of accused to be confronted with the accusers 
and witnesses, does not exclude proper documentary evidence, and 
Acts 1901-02, p. 601, c. 516, and Act March 15, 1906 (Acts 1906, p. 
411, c. 236), relating to the illegal sale of intoxicating liquors, are 
not unconstitutional on the ground that proof that accused held a 
United States license as a retail liquor dealer shall be presumptive 
proof of his guilt, which proof may be furnished by a copy of the 
record in the office of a United States internal revenue collector. 

[Ed. Note. — For cases in point, see Cent. Dig. vol. 14, Criminal 
Law, § 1540.] 



PEOPLE'S PLEASURE PARK CO., Inc., et al. v. ROHLEDER. 

June 11, 1908. 
[61 S. E. 794.] 

1. Deeds — Construction — Conditions Subsequent. — A condition 
subsequent is not favored in law, since it tends to destroy vested in- 
terests, and such condition will not be extended beyond its terms, 
and a party asking a forfeiture for breach of condition must bring 
himself clearly within the terms of the condition, and this rule is 
applied where a grantor or his heirs seek to take advantage of a 
breach of a condition subsequent, and is even more applicable where 
its benefits are invoked by one not a party to the deed or convey- 
ance containing the condition. 

2. Corporations — Existence Apart from Stockholders — "Corpora- 
tions." — A corporation is an artificial person, like the state, having 
a distinct existence from that of its stockholders and directors. 

[Ed. Note. — For other definitions, see Words and Phrases, vol. 2, 
pp. 1608-1621; vol. 8, pp. 7619, 7620.] 

3. Covenants — Restrictive Covenants — Breach — "Vesting in Col- 
ored Persons" — What Constitutes. — A tract of land was divided up 
into a number of building lots, and each deed contained a covenant 
that the title to the land should never vest in a person of African 
descent or colored person, but some of the lots were thereafter con- 
veyed to a corporation composed of negroes, who purchased the land 



1908.] NORTON COAL CO. V. MURPHY. 549 

for the purpose of establishing an amusement park thereon for col- 
ored people; the corporation knowing of the covenant in the deed 
at the time of purchasing. Held, in an action to cancel the deed to 
the amusement park and enjoin the sale, that the transfer to the 
corporation composed of negroes for the purpose stated was not a 
breach of the covenant that the land should never vest in "colored 
persons," even though all the members and stockholders of the cor- 
poration were negroes, since the corporation was an entity distinct 
from its members, and was not a "colored person" within the cov- 
enant. 



BANKERS' LOAN & INVESTMENT CO. v. SPINDLE. 
Sept. 10, 1908. 
[62 S. E. 266.] 

1. Brokers — Contract for Services — Performance — Right to Com- 
missions. — Plaintiff procured a purchaser for certain of defendant's 
property at $6,100, the price fixed, payable $100 earnest money, $400 
on delivery of the deed, and 56 notes each for $100, payable monthly, 
to be executed by the purchaser, complainant to receive for his serv- 
ices $305 to be paid out of the last three of the notes so given. The 
purchaser paid the earnest money on the execution of the contract, 
but refused to accept a deed until certain defects in the title were 
cured. Defendant insisted that the title was good, and refused to 
remove the alleged defects, though the purchaser was financially re- 
sponsible, was acting in good faith and anxious to obtain a good title. 
Defendant, admitting the validity and enforceability of the contract, 
permitted the purchaser to rescind, and return to him the earnest 
money, without complainant's consent. Held, that complainant was 
entitled to the contract commissions. 

[Ed. Note. — For cases in point, see Cent. Dig. vol. 8, Brokers, § 92.] 

2. Same — Interest. — Where a broker was only entitled to commis- 
sions out of the last three of a series of notes to be given by the 
purchaser for the property which were to be executed as of Septem- 
ber 1, 1902, and would mature on the first days of July, August, and 
September, 1907, the broker on his principal's failure to complete 
the contract was only entitled to recover interest on the contract 
commissions from August 1, 1907. 



NORTON COAL CO. v. MURPHY. 
Sept. 10, 1908. 
[62 S. E. 268.] 
1. Master and Servant — Mines — Injury to Servant — Place to Work. 

— Where defendant's mine foreman, whose duty it was to inspect the 
mine, had been notified that the roof of the haulway where plaintiff